In acquiring organic dietderived antioxidant to prevent oxidative damage [18,19]. Therefore many studies have been carried out on all-natural sources to unravel the elements which possess antioxidant properties and with low cytotoxicities . Organic antioxidants are normally more desirable for Phospholipase A Inhibitor Source consumption than the synthetic 1 like butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) which was reported to become carcinogenic to humans . Lately, a lot of studies happen to be carried out around the antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds which have aroused rising interest in the isolation of such compounds present within the plants . Cancer is often a genetic illness, which is mostly driven by genetic instability, including changes in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes which results in the expression of abnormal proteins involved within the stimulation of cell proliferation and survival [23,24]. A big body of evidences have shown that cost-free radicals have been implicated within the improvement of cancer in humans [25,26]. A single instance of your free of charge radicals, could be the hydroxyl radical which can cause genetic mutation by forming adduct with guanine to form hydroxylated bases of DNA (8 hydroxyl-2-deoxyguanosine) causing transversions of GC (guanine-cytosine) to TA (thymine-adenine) [27,28]. Epidemiologic studies have also shown that cancer could possibly be as a consequence of a number of factors like exposure to environmental carcinogenic agents, life-style (tobacco and alcohol consumption), nutritional habit and infectious agents [29-32]. These variables can initiate and promote carcinogenesis which might progress to cancer. For the very best of our understanding, there isn’t any antioxidant and cytotoxic investigation on extracts of this species. Thus, this paper reports the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of your crude aqueous methanol and fractionated extracts of the rhizomes of Alpinia pahangensis and to determine the phenolic content. This study also aims to correlate the phenolic MMP-1 Inhibitor site content on the crude and fractionated extracts with its antioxidant properties. The active extract was additional subjected to gas chromatography ass spectrometry (GC-MS) evaluation for identification in the elements present within the extract.MethodsSample collectionThe rhizomes of Alpinia pahangensis have been collected from Pahang, Malaysia. This species was authenticated by Professor Dr Halijah Ibrahim, from Faculty of Science, University of Malaya and a voucher specimen (No. KLU 46177) deposited in the university herbarium.Phang et al. BMC Complementary and Option Medicine 2013, 13:243 biomedcentral/1472-6882/13/Page 3 ofReagents and chemicalsButylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), ascorbic acid, FolinCiocalteu’s phenol reagent, -carotene, linoleic acid, Tween 80, gallic acid and two,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), potassium ferricyanide had been acquired from Sigma-Aldrich. Methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate and trichloroacetic acid were obtained from Merck. All solvents have been bought in analytical grade.Human cell line and culture medium. The crude methanolic extract, hexane fraction, ethyl acetate fraction and good handle (BHA and ascorbic acid) have been dissolved in methanol whilst water fraction was dissolved in distilled water. The total phenolic content (mg/ g of plant extract) inside the crude aqueous methanol extract and its fractions expressed in gallic acid equivalents (GAE). Mean values had been calculated from 3 measurement.DPPH radical scavenging assayThe cell lines were purchased in the American Tissue Culture Collection (ATCC, USA).